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山西介休张壁村——神秘的城堡式村落 [复制链接]

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       以“地上明堡、地下暗道”著称的张壁村,是中国唯一具有军事、民用双重用途的城堡遗址,也是世界建筑史上罕见的袖珍城堡。虽然只有1.2万平方米,但黄土地下的张壁是一座让人惊叹的城,错综复杂的地道隐藏着一个个未解之谜。

一、明堡暗道,充满神秘。张壁村位于绵山北麓、介休城东南方向10公里处。晚秋的一天,我们从太原出发,一个多小时到达大运高速介休出口,与等候多时的介休市摄影家协会副主席董西平先生会合,在其带领下,向东驶去。一路上,心思随着转折的山路起伏跌宕,不一会,车子转到一处平静的黄土塬上,恍惚中只见一派世事祥和,抬头若望见阳光高照在头顶,心里便渐渐安定了。站在这里四下里看,可以望见被风雨剥蚀得苍凉颓败的堡墙。这土墙在这里站立的时间过久,但却像一副依然坚实的铠甲,仍旧忠实地护卫着张壁村日渐羸老的肌体。而历经兴衰的张壁村,就掩藏在这古堡之内,象一位疲惫失意但却仍然没有泯灭希望的夕阳武士,始终不愿舍弃这件过时的甲胄。古堡与村落,就这样相依相伴,阅尽沧桑。

       张壁村,在清代曾经是一个比较富裕的村子,随着晋商的衰落而衰落。这里以绵山民俗为主,民风古朴。婚丧嫁娶、民居建筑、风俗习惯以及饮食起居等,都别具特色。古代曾是多民族杂居点,剪纸、刺绣、背杠、干调秧歌都有一定的基础和规模。半个世纪以来,它渐渐走向颓败,被冷冷地埋没在黄土塬上。有人称这个古堡式的村落是个“谜”,村里村外皆砖墙叠砌,地下有长达3000余米的立体古代军事地道网,“明修堡墙,暗挖地道”,壁垒森严。张壁村为什么建造这样复杂而且规模巨大的地道?它又是如何修建而成的呢?
       在十多年里,已经有很多建筑学家、历史学家、军事专家和摄影师来过这里。这其中,中央电视台《军事天地》栏目曾对古地道作了专题拍摄。2001年春,来自清华、北大、中科院、军事科学院、建设部等单位的20余位在文物、古建、历史、军事方面具有权威性的专家专程来到张壁古堡,从不同角度对古堡的历史、文化、艺术、建筑、经济等方面的价值进行了科学评价。专家们一致认为,张壁古堡历史悠久,具有历史、文化、宗教、军事、民居等多元内涵。它“地上明堡、地下暗道”是全国唯一的具有军事、民用双重用途的城堡遗址,在城市建设方面填补了中国小城镇规划体系的空白。中国人民解放军军事科学院战略研究部专题小组则称其填补了我国古代军事工程研究的一项空白。
  
       古城堡呈长方形,东西374米,南北244米,城堡周长1300米,堡墙为板筑夯实,高约5到7米,大多构筑重修于唐代到明清时期。壁者,军垒也,张壁的名字告诉我们,它最初很有可能是功能单一的军事堡垒。然而今天,张壁展现在世人面前的却是集多种文化于一体的独特的历史人文景观。这里积淀着深厚的文化内涵,在全国独一无二,世界只有罗马天使堡和法国卡尔卡松堡可与之媲美;历史之悠久在晋中“一城五院”之上,它不同于晋中诸家大院的“大院文化”,又异于平远古城的“古城文化”,是晋商文化的特例。
       张壁古堡的面积虽然只有12000平方米,但却具有完整的城市形态,有军事防御功能,有小巧的钟楼和鼓楼,有为数众多的宗教活动场所,有交通网络,堡内的11眼水井构筑起城市给水系统,瓮城内的戏台是公共活动场所和政治文化中心,这些特征,使得张壁古堡不同于传统意义上的村堡,而更象是一座规划合理、功能齐全、设施完善的“古代袖珍小城”。
       城市街巷组织上,张壁古堡主次街道分明,南北主干道约宽五六米,长三百米,均由石块和石条铺路,名叫龙街,它与东边三巷、西面四巷构成“丁”字结构。东三巷为靳家巷、大东巷、小东巷,西四巷为西场巷、贾家巷、王家巷、户家园。东三巷民居多为农家小院,西四巷建筑错落递次,街巷格局严整,过去多为富户居住,门楣考究,砖、木、石雕精美,保存完好的民居目前主要集中于户家园与贾家巷的嘉会堂。而这些富户的后代,大多已经迁出张壁古堡,他们的祖屋也被封闭,无缘参观。
    
       张壁民居通常由四合院和三合院组成,四合院以西场巷的贾田荣院为代表,三合院以贾家巷的“清宁堂”为代表。张壁最大院落是清代商人张礼维的宅院,座落于贾家巷,由八个院落组成。张礼维当年号称张壁首富,他同时也是乡土建设的积极组织者和参与者,张家大院所在贾家巷被整齐地铺上了红砂石板,巷口建起了全村独一无二的永春楼。
       张壁古堡建有南北两座堡门,北堡门为砖砌,南堡门为石砌,北堡门外还建有一座提升防御能力的瓮城,而建筑于瓮城之上的多座宗教祠庙在战时也兼有防御作用,它们和周长1300米的堡墙共同组成了张壁的第一道防御体系,也就是外围防御体系。
    
       瓮城城门面向正东偏北开设,与北堡门构成了两道堡门。两道堡门不在一条中轴线上,这既是遵循古代军事防御的原则,同时又寓有风水不外流之意,并使瓮城城门指向800 米外的一座小山丘“照壁”和“照壁”上的象征北斗七星的七棵槐树。
       北堡门为张壁古堡的正门,但目前因为交通方面的原因,游客基本都从南堡门进入。南堡门为石砌,堡门上有一座石雕龙头,象征龙首;门外有九条红石铺路,象征龙须;进入城堡,是一条连接南北两个堡门的交通主干道,这条长约三百米的街道以石板铺地,象征龙身;清朝年间,堡中居民出于谐调风水和兴盛文运的考虑,由堡外花费人力财力运入石材,将街道中央的青石板挖起,铺设了三列平行的红色长石条,一直从南堡门延伸到北堡门,它象征着龙脊。
       张壁古堡还保留着我国多数古城均已消失的隋唐城市遗存的“里坊”,各个“里坊”巷门、门楼配备得当。沿着龙脊前行,街道两边整齐地排列着古朴的店铺门面和民居。而张壁古堡在兴盛时也曾商贾云集,成为物资交流的中转地,当年街道两侧,大多都是各类商行和车马店。走在这条街道上,稍加留意就会发现,临街一侧的墙壁修建得远比其它各处高大,除了当年的更窑、厕窑以及近年新开的学校、小店,竟然没有一座建筑把大门开设在主街上。
       而在龙街与几条小巷的丁字巷口,我们仍然可以看到保存至今的巷门,它们是各个“里坊”唯一的出口。关闭巷门之后,各个“里坊”就成为相对独立封闭的堡中之堡,“里坊”之间既可以各自为战,又能够相互呼应,即使个别“里坊”有失,也不致影响全局。

       我们由此可以想象,一旦敌寇攻破堡门,拥入龙街,不仅难以突破巷门进入各个“里坊”,反而会遭受到来自两侧高大建筑之上的左右夹击。
       张壁古堡的“里坊”建制是它的第二道防御体系,也就是内部防御体系。而事实上,这种以“里坊”建制来强化军事防御的设计在山西的古堡式村落中并非独此一处,沁水县郭壁村的“青缃里”和阳城县砥洎城的“世泽坊”都是保存完好的明代“里坊”建筑实例。
       张壁古堡地道规模宏大,结构奇特,呈三层立体网状结构,地道长约3000多米,目前开放的地约1000多米,主要呈“S”型走向,最高层距地面1米余,中层距地面8-10米,底层距地面17-20米,一般高度2米左右。堡外南北面沟中有洞口,既可作为进出口,又可用作哨位。我们还看到道内留存有气孔,通于沟堑外,还有隔井直下三层底部,古堡内现有水井六口,每口井的井壁上均开有洞口或洞门,有洞口的可垂绳索系水桶汲水,供地道内人畜饮用;有洞门的搭木板跨过井筒可直接进入另一通路;地道洞壁上每隔一段有一小坑,距离不等,是放置油灯的地方……在昏黄的灯光下充满了诡异色彩。
    
       地道内既有规模较大的屯兵洞、粮仓、马厩,又有陷阱、伏击坑、射箭坑、淹水道、通讯道、瞭望孔等军事设施,还有排水道口、逃跑出口,并有井从顶层直通底层,进、退、攻、防、藏、逃灵活多变,可屯兵万人。古堡内的11口水井,至少有8口水井和地道相通。古地道属于守备筑垒式的军事战术设施,设计暗含‘六壬奇门’之术,神秘诡谲,设计思想超前,在国内独一无二。
       介休一带在隋末唐初是个古战场,当时刘武周与李世民在此争夺天下,刘武周的偏将尉迟恭驻守此地。一些学者、文史爱好者经过研究推断认定古堡、地道可能是他所为,只是一晃已是千年了。

二、众多宗祠,和谐共处。宗教祠庙密集,是张壁古堡的一个显著特点,一座二百余户人家的小村,鼎盛时期竟然拥有二十余座祠庙,保存至今的,仍有十六座之多,这样的密度,在全国极为罕见。
       张壁的宗教祠庙主要有真武殿、空王殿、三大士殿、二郎庙、吕祖阁、西方圣境殿、地藏王菩萨殿、可汗祠、关帝庙等等,它们集中分布于北门内外和南门内外两个寺庙群,而且大多修建在堡墙之上。宗教建筑年代较为久远,多为明代以前的建筑。
       空王殿建于明万历年间,殿里的壁画,描绘的是他修行成佛的故事。空王佛,俗名田志超,成佛于绵山云峰寺,被尊为绵山山主,专司雨水,是周边地区广为尊崇的神佛之一。张壁古堡距绵山不过十余公里,这里出现他的佛殿也就不足为奇了。空王殿与毗邻的真武庙大殿上顶端,均有明代三彩琉璃装饰,华丽精美。在大殿廊下立有两座稀世罕见的琉璃碑,碑之通体为琉璃烧制,孔雀蓝底,黑字书写,碑额为青黄绿二龙戏珠。它们是我国目前绝无仅有的琉璃碑,堪称琉璃艺术世界中的奇葩。
       二郎庙是一座为改造风水而兴建并在此后屡次改建的祠庙。按照当地人解释,这里供奉的并非二郎神,而是即位前的北汉皇帝刘崇。刘崇是后汉皇帝刘知远的弟弟,又称二郎,而介休也曾是北汉小王朝的领地,从这方面说,做出这一推测是有一定根据的,但是,为什么刘崇即位之后没有提高这座生祠的规格并为祀主正名呢?这些自相矛盾的地方使得二郎庙的祀主变得扑朔迷离。
        可汗庙是南门寺庙群的主体,也是张壁最古老的寺庙,从前人留下的碑记来看,它最晚建于十四世纪初,而祀主是谁,早在明代天启年间重修时就已经无从可考了。现在,张壁人根据史料猜测,可汗庙祭祀的是刘武周,他身边的这两尊塑像,是他的部将宋金刚和尉迟恭。
       可汗庙院内,陈列着一块巨石,相传为建堡时的镇堡之物,巨石上赫然浮现出一幅雄鸡图,正是中华人民共和国的版图。院内还有一架双龙碾,拿水向盘面与碾子一浇,若隐若现出两条极具写意效果的龙来。当地百姓说,用双龙碾碾出的面特别香甜。
  
       在古堡南门外,建有一座弥补风水的关帝庙。关帝庙东院内原来供奉着千手千眼观音,文革期间,观音像被毁,人们在观音像后发现一夹壁墙,内藏有一尊高约一米的泥塑像,似佛非佛,似道非道,从服饰和冠戴看,象是宋代以前的官员。后来人们又从泥像腿部的破损处发现这是一尊浇铸的实芯铁像,表面加以泥塑。有关考古专家看后,认为这种铁像加泥塑的制像法从未见过。至于为什么要如此制像,塑像为什么佛、道、儒三教集于一身,为什么藏于夹壁墙内,则无人能够解释。
       在张壁村,我们可以看到,祭祀的范围几乎被无限化的扩大,既有三大士、真武大帝、吕祖等佛家和道家的宗教神灵,也有空王佛、子孙娘娘、痘母娘娘等民间俗神,还有关帝、二郎、可汗等社会人神。这不得不让人疑惑,小小张壁村为什么会出现如此之多的宗教祠庙和祭祀对象呢?
       中国民间信仰的一个显著特征是它的实用性与功利性,任何有希望解决现实问题的神灵都有可能成为顶礼膜拜的对象,这是张壁百姓同时供奉众多神灵的心理基础。张壁古堡在地理环境上的先天不足与乡民对风水与生俱来的敏感和重视,使得张壁古堡通过修建众来祠庙来改造风水成为极为迫切的现实需要。张壁过去处于介休朝拜绵山的道路上,周边旺盛的香火来源也助长了张壁村对宗教建筑的修建热情。
       当然,更为重要的原因,还是取决于张壁村雄厚的经济基础,离开了这一基础,所有的规划只是一个美好的设想。张壁所在的介休,自古有经商之风,为明清晋商的主要策源地之一。介休商业的兴盛必将对张壁起到带动和示范作用。一些习惯了面朝黄土背朝天的村民最终鼓足勇气,扔下撅头弃农从商,离开家乡去走南闯北,他们取得的商业成就和此后的衣锦还乡带来了张壁村的整体繁荣。

       张壁村商业的具体情况,已经无史料可考,村民们并不了解祖先的历史与业绩,个别村中老人还能回忆起从父辈那里听来的旧日繁华,这些零散的记忆与传说仿佛撕碎的书页,再也难以看到它完整的内容。
       好在村中几十块石碑为我们从侧面提供了重要信息,我们可以看到,张壁村从商的村民不在少数,他们把生意做到了北京、河南、江苏、湖北、福建,他们所从事的行业,和晋中的许多商业家族大抵相似,以典当业和钱庄业为主。从清代康熙年间开始,商号与大商人逐渐部分甚至全部承担起了村中宗教建筑和公益事业的费用,而一批杰出商人则起到了重要的组织和管理作用,正是他们的热情与鼎力扶持,才有了我们今天所能看到的张壁村。
       张壁村是一个杂姓村,张、贾、靳、王之所以成为村中四大姓,与他们曾经的商业成就不无关系,张壁商人随着晋商的崛起而兴盛,也随着晋商的衰落而归于沉静,他们在时代大潮的推动下,不由自主地完成了从农民到商人,再从商人到农民的轮回。与其它晋商家族不同的是,他们并没有留下太多深宅大院,这些并不突出的院落与村中的突出的宗教祠庙形成了让许多人难以理解的反差,或许先辈们认为,同样是留给子孙后代的馈赠,但精神家园远比现实家园更为重要。

三、种种悬疑,尚待破解。张壁古堡的三重军事防御体系,攻守兼备,环环相扣,堪称古代军事工程的杰出范例。张壁古堡庞大复杂的地下工程,与地面丰富的历史文化遗存,使其成为集古代军事文化、宗教文化、民俗文化于一体的独特的历史人文景观。以当地的历史、经济发展状况判断,如此复杂的设计、浩大的工程量,绝非民力所及,但史料上竟然没有留下任何始建年代与建设缘由的记载,地方志上也是一片空白,这使得张壁古堡更显神秘。
       由于多次地震造成的塌陷,张壁的大部分地道已经淤塞,目前清理出来的仅有1000余米,而根据测算,张壁古堡地道的总长度当在万米左右,我们所能看到的只是十分之一。
       当地学者、文史爱好者经过研究推断认定,张壁古堡建设于隋末唐初,它的建设者是刘武周,得出这一推论最直接的证据,是古堡内的可汗祠和唐初李世民与刘武周在介休一带交战的历史事实。
       张壁现存的可汗祠位于南堡门内,亦称可罕王祠、鞑王庙,始建年代不详,根据碑文记载,重修于元代,大殿上保存有宋瓦,殿内立有刘武周、宋金刚、尉迟恭的塑像。
       刘武周出生于豪富之家,骁勇善射,任马邑鹰扬府校尉。公元617年,刘武周趁隋末天下大乱之机,杀死马邑太守王仁恭自立,并进而攻占隋炀帝的行宫汾阳宫,将俘获的宫女进献给突厥,换取军事援助和“定杨可汗”的封号,刘武周不久僭称皇帝,图谋天下。同年,李渊父子从晋阳起兵,攻入长安,在第二年建立唐朝。公元619年春,刘武周挥师南下,攻取唐王朝“国之根本”的晋阳,在介休两次击败唐朝援军,一路南下,势如破竹。就在唐高祖李渊准备放弃河东退守关中的时候,李世民挺身而出,顷关中之兵誓师出征,从龙门踏着坚冰渡过黄河进入山西,在绛州柏壁采取坚壁挫锐的战术与刘武周的妻兄宋金刚对峙五个月。宋金刚军粮耗尽后被迫北撤,李世民两天不吃饭,三天不脱甲,率军乘胜追歼数百里,在介休鼠雀谷追上宋金刚主力,一日八战,八战八捷。当天夜里,唐军宿营于鼠雀谷,全军分享了仅有的一只羊。第二天,双方又在介休西门外决战,宋金刚再次大败,逃归晋阳,李世民率军追击至介休东北四十里的张难堡。刘武周攻取并州时,唐将樊伯通、张德政据守张难,筑堡死守,至此已近一年。李世民策马来到堡下,摘下头盔,堡内唐军欢呼雀跃,泪水飞溅。不久,李世民收复晋阳,招降尉迟恭,刘武周与宋金刚北逃,后来均被突厥杀害。
  
       张难堡现名张南镇,全省知名的文物交流市场。张难堡由唐将兴建或加固于公元619年,而张壁古堡,应当是由刘武周部将于同年修筑。张壁村位于河东与晋阳之间,距介休城30里,对于刘武周而言,在对唐朝的军事防御上具有重要的战略意义。当年刘武周修筑张壁古堡,应当是做为一项秘密军事工程对外秘而不宣,因此,史籍上没有任何记载。张壁古堡的地道可屯兵万人,一旦唐军反攻,对垒于介休城下,古堡内的这支伏兵将起到出奇致胜的关键作用,即便介休有失,张壁古堡也将成为一柄尖刀,凭险据守,起到制约唐军、策应晋阳的战略作用。然而,军事形势的发展过于迅速,宋金刚兵败如山倒,从柏壁一溃数百里,李世民没有给他任何喘息的机会,介休、晋阳很快就被唐军收复,张壁古堡这座苦心经营的军事要塞,没有起到任何战略、战术上的作用便湮没于历史的尘埃之中。
       然而,关于张壁古地道建于隋末唐初,也只是没有任何可靠证据和史料证明的推论而已。在这种情况下,我们无法对张壁古堡的创建年代予以准确定位,这一切还有待考古学家们详细勘测、论证,才能做出结论。
       在翻阅有关资料的同时,又发现了几种不同的猜测,关于张壁地道的建筑年代,愈发变得扑朔迷离。
       除了1994年秋后所进行的那次清理工作,同样是在20世纪90年代初,在填平涝池的过程中,许多记载着详实史料的石碑被扔进了池中,它们中的某一块,或许就记录着张壁未解之谜的答案。
       在山西阳城县郭峪村、沁水县湘峪古城,也建有地道,但这些地道只能做为通讯孔道和地下转移通道,象张壁这样复杂而且规模巨大的地道却是仅存的孤例。专家们推测,张壁的古堡与地道是同时建设的,地道弃土同时成为修筑堡墙的夯土。
       山西的城堡式村落还有很多,以建设者和建设年代来分主要有三类,一类以碛口西湾村和榆次车辋村为代表,由晋商家族为保卫家族安全而建设于清代;一类以沁河古村落群为代表,由当地士绅为抵御流寇而建设于明末乱世;一类以偏关老牛湾村、大同边墙五堡为代表,由封建王朝为抵御游牧民族入侵而建设于明代。
       山西各地之所以出现如此之多的城堡式村落,取决于封建时代山西重要的战略地位和连绵不绝的战乱。张壁所在的介休,即是山西重要的战略要地之一,介休南境的雀鼠谷为汾河谷地重要孔道之一,许多战役就发生在这一带。由于张壁周边长期处于动荡之中,使得各个战乱时期都有可能成为张壁古堡的建设年代,在没有直接证据的情况下,我们只能通过有限的史料从侧面来寻找线索。
       张壁村外,有一座金大定四年古墓的墓志铭,这是关于张壁村的最早文字记载。也就是说,最晚在公元1164年,就已经有了张壁村。但是,当时的张壁是什么样子呢?现在我们看到的张壁古堡是修建于1164年之前还是重修于1164年之后呢?我们依旧无法确定。

       在张壁南堡门的门匾上,有大明嘉靖三十八年的落款。嘉靖至隆庆年间,南侵的鞑靼骑兵两次兵临介休城下,那么,张壁古堡有没有可能是这一时期修建的呢?当时,明朝政府已经为山西在外三关和内三关建立了两道抵御蒙古南侵的防线,不可能再在此地耗费巨资修建这样一座军事城堡,而以张壁当时的经济实力,也无力自行建设。所以,嘉靖年间的工程,应该只是对已有城堡的修缮或加固。通过这块门匾,我们可以把嘉靖三十八年做为张壁古堡建设年代的下限。这一下限的确定,也使我们能够排除为抵御明代崇祯年间掠晋流寇而建的可能。
       我们再来看看其它史料。北宋靖康之难以后,绵山曾成为抗金义军的根据地,1966年,在绵山悬崖的石隙里发现了一只铜罐,里面保存有这支义军的五份抗金文献。但是,在太原、介休已经沦陷的情况,抗金义军恐怕没有充足的人力、物力和时间来修建工程量如此巨大的城堡。
       让我们回到张壁古堡的二郎庙,北汉皇帝刘崇就是祀主二郎的猜测不能不给我们一些启发。当年周世宗兵临晋阳,赵匡胤、赵光义兄弟三下河东,烽烟燃遍晋中,枕弋待旦的北汉皇帝们有没有可能通过修建张壁古堡来加强晋阳防务呢?北汉王朝在军事防御上存在这个必要;他们也有这样的能力;北汉王朝建国29年始终未设史官,北宋军队进展神速直抵晋阳,都可能是张壁古堡未能出现在史书中的原因。这一猜测未尝没有根据。
       再把话题扯回来。可汗庙的祀主同二郎庙一样让人疑惑难解,张壁村人认定可汗是隋末军阀刘武周,并以此做出张壁古堡是刘武周修建于隋末唐初的推测。然而,这一切只是后人一厢情愿的推测和臆想。无论是创建于北汉年间还是隋唐年间,虽然都具有较大的可能性,但由于缺乏佐证,张壁古堡何时修建仍是一宗疑案。
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