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杭州于谦祠景点 [复制链接]

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       杭州于谦祠景点“山河也要伟人扶,神化丹青即绘图。赖有岳于双少保,人世始觉重西湖”。在袁枚这首喜闻乐见的诗中,与岳飞齐名,为西湖添色的于少保,就是出生于杭州,最终又归葬于西湖的明朝民族英雄于谦。
  于谦祠位于西湖三台山麓,为传统型的祠堂建筑,白墙灰瓦,朱漆大门,“于忠肃公祠”几个篆书大字显得肃静庄严。祠堂共有三进,为前殿、正殿和后殿,前殿与正殿间,有南北配房各一,配房北面尚有配殿一间,建筑面积约900多平方米。天井里草木葱翠、绿树成荫,是一处清幽之所。
  前殿辟为序厅,殿门两侧楹联是林则徐所撰:“公论久然后定,何处更得此人”。清朝嘉庆壬午年(1822)六月,林则徐任浙江杭嘉湖道,他建议集资整修于谦祠墓,并带头捐募本人的官奉。上悬匾额“百世一人”,是关于谦终身功劳的高度归纳综合。序厅正中一宏大石灰岩上雕刻着媒介,石灰岩外型取意于谦青少年时所作诗作《石灰吟》,“肝脑涂地全不怕,要留清白在人世”也恰是于谦终身坚毅刚
烈不阿、两袖清风高洁品性的真实写照。两侧墙上陈列于谦年表、于谦世系表,一张绘于清代的于谦伉俪像尤为惹人瞩目。厅内还放置外型简约的案几、椅等明式家具以衬着氛围。

  正殿是于谦祠的主体局部,也是陈列最具特征的中央,通面宽21.8米,进深14.15米,。大殿正中是一座于谦全身立像,于公威严厉立,双目炯炯,大义凛然。像高3.2米,基座1.3米,为海水浪花图案。像后衬以由徐向前元帅书写的《石灰吟》壁面,泥像上方吊挂乾隆御题匾额:“丹心抗节”,黑底金字,为乾隆十六年乾隆帝南巡杭州凭吊于谦时所题。殿柱上吊挂数幅颂扬于谦不朽功劳的楹联,均是明清期
间的名家所撰,经现代书法家题写。大殿墙面为两幅半圆大型浮雕壁画,左侧是“北京捍卫战”,右侧是“土木堡之变”的有关场景,每幅画相对自力,但在整体上又呵成一气,局面颇为凝重、壮观,运用明暗幻化的灯光结果,再辅以铿锵激越的《十面潜伏》配景音乐,使人发生设身处地之感,恍如置身于刀光血影、杀声震天、灰尘飞扬的古疆场,正与于谦一同抵御外侮。壁画高3米,宽46米,是经专家屡
次论证修正,在中国美术学院雕塑家王卓予师长教师的指导下完成。壁画打破了普通祠堂陈列的窠臼,使壁面不见柱子,与匾额、楹联、泥像遥相照应,具有激烈的艺术震动结果。泥像反面的墙壁上嵌有清代石碑若干块,个中包括湘乡杨昌 题的线刻《明少保兵部尚书赠太傅谥忠肃于公像》碑一块,袁枚题《重建于忠肃庙碑》残碑九块。
  后殿陈列于谦生平事迹,采用图版和照片相分离的方式,分“少年壮志”、“勤政廉正”、“捍卫北京”、“永垂青史”四个局部,细致引见了于谦高贵的品德、杰出的功劳以及悲壮的人生。两侧的陈列柜中,离别展现了于谦的著作和历代有关于谦的评述著作,有《于肃愍公集》、《于少保萃忠全传》、《于忠肃公祠墓录》等。
  南北配房离别作为火器室和欢迎室。火器室陈列明代的各类军器,包括神机营用的火铳、火炮等。明代的火器门类多、数目大、制造精、手艺高,有较高的研讨和观赏价值。
  前殿与后殿间的庭院里,赫然立着一尊威武、雄壮的铁犀牛,身高约2米,围长约2.5米,周身漆黑,独角朝天,背上铸有于谦亲撰的《镇河铁犀铭》,它是于谦勤政爱民、管理黄河的一个汗青见证。黄河自古多众多,巡抚河南时代,他励精图治,奔走于大河上下,经心管理水灾。为鼓舞人民打败洪灾的自信心,在1446年,派人铸了这尊“镇河铁犀”,表达了进展铲除黄河水灾,使庶民过上清闲幸福生涯
的美妙愿望。原物现存于河南开封铁牛村。
  庭院右侧有口井,井旁立碑,名之为“忠泉”。依据祠内清时李铎遗碑记录:康熙乙亥年,在改建于谦祠时发现此泉,泉水色清而味甘,因念“公之大忠实如水之在地中”,故以此定名。后殿的院子里还保管着数明清两代的石碑,离别是四块大碑(弘治、嘉靖、万历、康熙)及一块乾隆年间的残碑。
  出于谦祠大门向北约50米,可见一明式牌楼,墓道长长,芳草萋萋,两旁肃立的石翁仲、石兽,为墓区凭添几分庄严与肃静。百米墓道的止境,是省级重点文物维护单元于谦墓,墓碑上书“大明少保兼兵部尚书赠太傅谥忠肃于公墓”,是1982年修复墓时从新雕刻的,碑下的浮雕缠枝牡丹基座,和墓前的石供桌,均为明时原物。
  于谦祠是杭州市第五批爱国主义教育基地,经由几年的规划与建立,已构成了包括于谦祠、于谦墓、墓道、牌楼等文物建筑与天然山林、绿地相分离的于谦祠景区,面积也由最初的6000平方米扩展到31000平方米。今朝,景区正在建筑于谦雕塑广场、忠泉池、于谦诗碑廊,方案把配殿恢复为祈梦殿,跟着西湖西进工程的停顿,于谦祠景区将成为一处主要的人文景观。
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