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茶马古道上最后一个古集市——大理剑川沙溪古镇 [复制链接]

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银光图片
        剑川境内的沙溪古镇上的寺登街是茶马古道上唯一幸存的集市,也有一条古老的四方街,尽管已被炒得让“地球人都知道了”,小镇还是一副安然世外的样子。

                                                                   古风浩存

  沙溪位于云南省大理剑川县西南部,地处金沙江、澜沧江、怒江三江并流自然保护区的东南部,位于大理风景名胜区与丽江古城之间,远近闻名的石宝山就在这里。沙溪是一个青山环抱的小坝子,这里山清水秀、气候宜人,物产丰富,澜沧江水系黑潓江由北至南纵贯全坝。

                                                                    沙溪方位图  
        
       沙溪是一个历史悠久的小镇,上可追溯到2400多年前的春秋战国时期。唐宋时期,南诏、大理国在西南地区兴起,并成为当时唐朝和吐蕃的缓冲地段,也是连接强者之间的纽带,也是沟通两者经济、文化交往的茶马古道的主要途经地之一。沙溪作为当时古道上的一个古镇,发挥着积极的作用。也许是上苍对沙溪情有独钟,唐代以后,与沙溪坝一山之隔,位于沙溪西部的弥沙发掘了盐井,古称傍弥潜井,沙溪是离盐井最近的茶马古道集市,古镇的贸易也随之加入新的内容——盐。盐井的开采,犹如锦上添花,为沙溪的发展推波助澜,古镇作为离盐井最近的茶马古道集市,一跃成为茶马古道的盐都,成为西藏、滇西北地区的食盐供给的集散地。盐作为人民生活的必需品之一,在沙溪逐渐成为继茶、马贸易后,又一重要商品。

                                                                    古韵悠长 
      
       沙溪寺登街位于剑川县沙溪镇政府所在地。是全镇的政治、经济、文化中心,距剑川县城32公里,州府大理市158公里,距石宝山风景区12公里,平均海拔2100米,东经99。45′-99。58,北26。10′-26。19′,面积约2平方公里。寺登街曾是滇藏盐茶古道上的一个重镇。历史悠久,文物古迹众多,形成了以省级文物保护单位兴教寺古建筑为中心,以欧阳大院、赵家大院、赵氏家宅,杨家大院等为代表的白族传统建筑群。

                                                                    民居  
      
       2001年10月11日,沙溪寺登街被世界纪念性建筑基金会(WMF)入选2002年值得关注的101个世界濒危建筑遗产名录。该名录中指出:"中国沙溪(寺登街)区域是茶马古道上唯一幸存的集市。有完整无缺的戏院,旅馆、寺庙、寨门,使这个连接西藏和南亚的集市相当完备。"寺登街区域不但完整保留了茶马古道上传统的山乡古集风貌,还有至今仍在延袭的鲜活的阿吒力佛教文化,儒家文化和白族民间乡土文化,为此引起了国际社会的关注。

  古镇景点

  四方街:位于寺登街中心,这里曾是西藏药材、马匹、皮毛和云南的茶叶、食盐等进行交易而形成的茶马古道重要集市。四方街及四周的寺庙,古戏台、马店、商铺、古寨门、古桥等,至今仍保持着过去若干世纪以来的原貌。宽阔的街面全用石板铺砌,足迹斑斑,留下岁月沧桑。走进四方街,仿佛走进数百年前的马帮兴盛,商贸繁荣,梵音缭绕的时空隧道。

                                                                    红砂石板古街 
      
       古戏台:位于四方街东,始建于清代,为三层楼魁星阁带戏台结构,前台后阁,结构独特,飞檐叠角,有14个飞角,此种山乡古戏台,全国少有。

  兴教室:位于四方街西,正对古戏台,建于明永乐十三年(1415),是国内现今仅存的明代白族"阿吒力"佛教寺院,为省级重点文物保护单位。兴教寺大殿内还保存壁画20多幅,由当地白族画师张宝绘于明永乐十五年(1417)。

                                                                    影壁  
        
       欧阳大院:寺登街上有不少靠赶马发迹的马锅头建盖的宅院(兼做马店)。其中欧阳大院最具有特色,为三坊一照壁的白族传统院落,有大门、二门、正房、耳房、小花园、小戏台、厨房,还有附属马房。建盖已有一百多年,但古貌依旧,引人入胜。

  鳌峰山古墓群:位于沙溪寺登街南500米的鳌峰山顶,根据出土文物鉴定,鳌峰山古墓群的年代约为春秋晚期至西汉初期。它的发现,对研究洱海地区青铜器文化,乃至云南高原社会历史,提供了极其重要的实物资料。

       
       此外,沙溪寺登街景区还有东寨门、玉津桥、南寨门、石鳌桥、长乐魁阁、本主庙、慈荫庵、城隍庙、老马店、赵家院、南北古宗巷等景点。

                                                                    古街 
      
       寺登四方街是沙溪的灵魂与核心,是沙溪商贸交易的地方。它位于沙溪坝子中央螯峰山熬头位置,依山傍水,是一个地理位置极佳的风水宝地,是一个集寺庙、古戏台、商铺、马店,开阔的红砂石板街面,百年古树、古巷道、寨门于一身、功能齐备的千年古集市。寺登古街共有三个门——东寨门、南寨门、北寨门,西边紧靠熬峰山的无寨门。东寨门通往大理地区,南寨门联结古镇南面与西面的滇西盐井,北寨门通往西藏地区。经过寨门,一条狭窄、深长的古巷道悠然而来,两边残旧的古铺面悄然耸立在巷道两边。狭长巷道的尽头,是寺登的贸易中心——四方街。四方街似曲尺型,正街南北长约300米,东西宽约100米,其中北部街东西长约100米,南北宽约50米,整个街面用红砂石板铺筑,街中心有两棵数百年的古槐树。四方街东面有坐东朝西的古戏台,西面有坐西朝东的兴教寺,两这遥相呼应,将四方街平分为南北两半,整个街场四周商铺马店林立,三条古巷道延伸到古镇的四面八方。

                                                                    精美的木雕                                                                                
       寺登街在以前每隔三天有一个街市,热闹非凡,各地来的马帮在街前一天下午就陆陆续续通过巷道来到古街投宿,戏台上洞经古乐、白族霸王鞭舞、民歌表演在街前天下午就开始。古戏台是寺登四方街上最有特色的建筑,它位于四方街东面建筑群中央临街的位置,与西面兴教寺殿宇、寺门建筑成一中轴线,将古四方街平分为南北两半,从而为划定各类生意经营范围提供了实物标志。四方街西面的兴教寺有一个破损的石狮,它的身上有一个圆形小孔。据古镇上的老人讲,以前那个小孔里塑有大型红色木杠,上面有一盏巨大的防风雨的油灯,由寺登村民轮流值守,每天一户。到太阳落山的时候,值守户往灯里加油、点灯,第二天早上再由该户熄灯,并交给下一户值守。这就是说,在以前茶马古道相当热闹的时候,无论刮风下雨,寺登四方街夜夜通明,寺登古镇不仅白天热闹,而且晚上也热闹。

                                                                    古建筑  
        
       漫步古街红砂石板,登上古戏台,看一看四方街铺面和马店,走一走黑潓江上玉津桥,到兴教寺感受各种流派佛教合而为一的寺庙,听一听沙溪洞经古乐,体会古老民族的古音乐的韵味,看一次白族传统的霸王鞭,跳一曲白族传统的肖拉者舞,听沙溪姑娘唱一曲白族调,尝一尝沙溪土特产地参子、松茸、羊乳饼,我们为茶马古道上能保存下一个完整的古集市而庆幸。
最后编辑伊卡洛斯 最后编辑于 2011-08-17 10:13:26
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        远方就在不远方。对于早已厌倦盛名在外而变熙攘的乌镇、同里、周庄等的行者而言,或许彩云之南能带来更多的惊喜,远方不远——在决定出发的时刻,时空隔阻就不再是问题。
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Tips aboard Public Speaking
Business Articles | June 5 2007
      You should all work to the apartment early while you are giving a talk This way you aspiration be capable to discern what tools you tin use to convey your speech
  
      
    
    
  The talent to talk well is important not matter what your eventual profession
  A person who can speak well can let other folk know what he thinks and why.
Public speaking namely a long standing activity in 4-H. It provides the opportunity
for the club membership to study to express himself and to amplify ego confidence.
  Practice makes perfect All club members are urged to take an active chapter in
  club meetings, skits, plays and demonstrations.
In this way experience can be acquired to enter a speaking contest within the
regional club. The value of public speaking talent namely never confined to the five
  minutes alternatively so it takes to transfer a talk It lies more in the development
  of personality as it namely shaped along the contact namely juvenile people have in their
  own age team and with society outdoor this group For all segments of society
  to get along with one again and to know one afresh each team needs
  information aboard the other.
Public speaking namely someone namely everyone needs some ability For older club
  members public speaking talent provides the opportunity as the common public
amongst service clubs and other municipal organizations to learn just what 4-H is
  what it is doing and what it offers to youth.
Giving a conversation in front of an crowd demands ego exercise But more important
is the logic necessary in preparing a chat alternatively demonstration. It is schooling in
  developing a convincing contention and selection of facts needed to get across
  your point of perspective
Whether a chat is ready to persuade alternatively to simply impeach an crowd demands
  a strong introduction to the subject, the body of the talk fraught with pertinent
  facts, and an ending with the idea the speaker highest wants the multitude to remember.
The 4-H circular"Giving a Talk - 10
  Tips on Public Speaking" says that the 1st 10 words are more important
  than the after 10 minutes. Preparation and practice and giving a chat namely an support
  in education the idea to prefer from all namely namely easily the main points
  of the heading.
The success of every 4-H club depends to a tremendous degree on its public image.
  The image of 4-H outdoor the club can be best established according the members themselves.
  Confidence and talent to express oneself are the cardinal factors in establishing
  an image to reflect the importance of the 4-H agenda as a dynamic youth development
deputy.
Participation in the 4-H public
  speaking competition develops such confidence and aptitude as both boys
  and girls.
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